However, carbon only has four valence electrons, which means it needs to share four additional electrons with another atom to be stable and happy. For example, HC≡CCH3 is propyne, and CH3C≡CCH3 is 2-butyne because the multiple bond begins on the second carbon atom. 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Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: The unsaturated hydrocarbons contain multiple bonds; carbon makes double or triple bonds with other carbon atoms. The word saturated has the same meaning for hydrocarbons as it does for the dietary fats and oils: the molecule has no carbon-to-carbon double bonds (C=C). A hydrocarbon is an organic compound whose only constituents are carbon and hydrogen. Each dash (-) represents a single covalent bond in the structural formula, where two atoms share one pair of valence electrons. The simplest alkanes, which are methane, ethane, propane, have only one structure. An ordinary solid line indicates a bond in the plane of the page. Alkanes can feature a linear or a branched carbon chain in their structures. The distinguished chemical formula of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons is listed below. 309 K) has the highest boiling point. If the two methyl groups are on opposite sides of the double bond, the compound is trans-2-butene (from the Latin trans, meaning “across”). Saturated, in this case, means that each carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms (hydrogen or carbon)—the most possible; there are no double or triple bonds in the molecules. The sequence starts with C3H8, and a CH2 unit is added in each step moving up the series. Instead, saturation has to do with the number of carbon atoms present in a molecule. Hydrocarbons that have at least one double bond between two adjacent carbon atoms are called alkenes. They contain sp 2 or sp hybridized carbons. It bums with a blue flame. As with alkanes, more than one structure is possible for alkenes with four or more carbon atoms. (R)-3-methyheptane b. Make sure that each one has the correct number of carbons and hydrogens. For example, butane has only two chain isomers, but octane (C. ) has a total of 18 possible chain isomers. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Unsaturated Hydrocarbon: Definition & Examples, Homologous Series: Definition & Identification, Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Definition, Examples & Uses, What is Hydrocarbon? The smallest one I know of is acetylene. succeed. Normal butane (usually called n-butane) is CH3CH2CH2CH3, in which the carbon atoms form a single unbranched chain. The large numbers are credited to the property of catenation as exhibited by carbon. It's classified as a saturated hydrocarbon because the six carbon atoms have 14, or the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms, bonded to each of the carbon atoms. As the name indicates, hydrocarbons are organic compounds of hydrogen and carbon. They can also form straight chains, branched chains, or even rings. Whereas the larger alkenes have lower melting and boiling points, and therefore they are liquids or waxy solids at room temperature. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. It speeds up ripening. Addition of water: Alkynes are insoluble in water. This makes them more reactive. For example, butane has only two chain isomers, but octane (C8H18) has a total of 18 possible chain isomers. The composition of the gas depends on the original type of paper used, a book’s binding, and the applied media. Even though cyclopropane has a carbon-carbon bond angle of 60°, it has the highest ring strain in all cycloalkanes. On an average, each -CH, The melting point of the alkanes shows irregular variation with the increase in the molecular size. They contain sp 2 or sp hybridized carbons. The longer the carbon chain, the higher the melting or boiling point. The alkanes with the even number of carbon atoms have a higher melting point as compared to the next lower alkane with the odd number of carbon atoms. Replacing one of the hydrogens of methane with another methyl (-CH3) group leads to the formation of another alkane, known as ethane. Note how many hydrogens the terminal and internal carbons have. An “unsaturated” hydrocarbon molecule is one with double or triple bonds between two carbon atoms. Section 2.6 "Industrially Important Chemicals", Table \(\PageIndex{1}\) "The First 10 Straight-Chain Alkanes", 3.6: Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds. C H 4 , Methane C 2 H 6 , Ethane: More reactive To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Missed the LibreFest? 's' : ''}}. The dihydrogen gas is adsorbed on the surface of metals; which leads to the activation of hydrogen-hydrogen bonds. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. The difference in the chemical formulae of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons is illustrated below. - Definition, Formula & Compounds, Alkanes: Definition, Properties, Formula & Examples, Hydrocarbon Derivatives: Definition & Properties, Aldehyde: Definition, Reactions, Formula & Structure, Alkenes: Definition, Properties & Examples, Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: Definition & Properties, Alkynes: Properties, Uses, Formula & Examples, Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers, What are Simple Organic Compounds in Chemistry? However, methane cannot be prepared by Kolbe’s electrolysis. The number of bonds between carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon is indicated in the suffix: The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. By dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides, 3. Show all hydrogen atoms bonded to. A saturated hydrocarbon can have a linear, branched, or a ring-shaped structure and can, therefore, be classified into one of the following types: It is important to note that even polycyclic alkanes (alkanes with several rings in their structures) are also categorized as cycloalkanes and are, therefore, a type of saturated hydrocarbons.