Figure 4.1. 2017 May 18;10:130. doi: 10.1186/s13068-017-0816-y. 2-Naphthol; Bioethanol; Carbocation scavenger; Enzymatic hydrolysis; Inhibition; Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation; Spruce; Steam explosion pretreatment. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.11.013. The method was quickly applied in other industries, such as animal feedings, producing wood powder from hardwoods, veneer production, etc. 2,5-benzyl alcohol is the best laccase inducer, followed by 3,5-dimethoxybenzyl, and 3,4-benzyl alcohol was the worst laccase inducer (Hui, 2006). CustomURL gabelogannewell These organics include wheat bran, bagasse, rice straw, wheat straw, wood chips, straw skin, lees, soybean meal, corn cob, deinking sludge, vines, and olive mill wastewater. However, besides being effective in the removal of hemicellulose, the steam explosion treatment is not able to completely break the lignin–carbohydrate complex and promotes changes in lignin structure that can make it difficult to extract (Agbor et al., 2011; Hendriks and Zeeman, 2009; Li et al., 2007), therefore, to generate a pulp with a high cellulose content, subsequent steps are required, such as alkaline treatments for the removal of the modified lignin. Over the last decades the steam explosion treatment has been attracting increasing interest worldwide, and lately it has become the preferred method for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass (Mosier et al., 2005; Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2008), especially for agricultural residues like sugarcane bagasse, in the bioconversion of lignocellulose-to-ethanol process (Kaar et al., 1998; Kumar et al., 2009). The Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, developed the extensive processing of hemp, achieved more than 20 patents centered on steam explosion, and combined hemp resource advantages with high-tech processes to produce sizable economic and social benefits. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Steam explosion is a physicochemical method that uses high-pressure steam to disrupt bonding between polymeric components and decompression to break the lignocellulose structure. Another method widely used for selective removal of the residual sugarcane bagasse lignin is treatment with sodium chlorite in dilute acetic acid (Table 9.2). Liu S, Lu H, Hu R, Shupe A, Lin L, Liang B. Biotechnol Adv. At present, only a few white-rot fungi can produce LiP. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Process for producing soft and fine jute fibres from raw jute involving steam explosion method In particular, the process involves pre-treatment of the raw jute in a alkaline media followed by subjecting the thus pre-treated raw jute to steam treatment in a pressure vessel and … eCollection 2017. 2009;581:61-77. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60761-214-8_5. The process is simple and environment friendly and cost effective. The presence of 2-naphthol in the second pretreatment stage can enhance the ethanol yield in SSF of steam explosion pretreated softwood at low cellulose concentrations of 1% w/w. The water changes from … This is mainly because the solid-state fermentation tank is facing some insurmountable problems. In the second stage, a 2-naphthol dosage of 0.205 mol/mol lignin C9-unit increased the ethanol yield in SSF with a cellulose loading of 1% using the whole second stage pretreatment slurry by 17% from 73.6% for the control without 2-naphthol to 90.4%. A detailed characterization of the chemical composition of 60 samples of sugarcane bagasse from different varieties, cultivated places, soils, harvest season, and climate, showed that on average, the chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse ranged from 39.5% to 45.7% for cellulose, 25.6%–29.6% for hemicellulose, 18.9%–26.1% for lignin, 2.3%–10.5% for extractives, and 1.1%–6.0% for ashes (Rocha et al., 2015). The process takes place at temperature between 80 and 110°C, with a hydrogen peroxide loading varying between 0.5% and 4% (w/w) (Ek et al., 2009). After steam explosion treatment, the wood dehydration occurred and the appearance of the wood colour changed. Substrate produced from lignin peroxidase is rich in lignin. F. Fu, ... E. Xu, in Advanced High Strength Natural Fibre Composites in Construction, 2017. Laccase can be produced by most of the white-rot fungus stains, but except Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which is well-known, for the lack of laccase production ability. The radial and tangential gas permeability of A. lasiocarpa was improved after steam explosion treatment and increased with the increase of the blasting pressure, temperature and cycle index. Reduction of carbon emissions. 2017;3(6):1–8. The basic technical route is as follows: raw hemp is harvested by farmers and is first steam-exploded to separate peel fibers and stalk fibers; after water extraction the peel fibers go through a finishing process; the liquid is extracted to get xylo-oligosaccharides, and the pectins obtained from stalk fibers and peel fibers after water extraction are once again steam-exploded to produce ecological fiberboard and organic fertilizers. The fibres obtained following the above process are suitable for use in the textile industry and would enable producing tailor made jute fibres for specific end use/applications. endstream endobj startxref When using straw as a material for organic fertilizer production, the simple grinding treatment leads to long retting times, low conversion rate of organic matter, and unsatisfactory fertilizer efficiency. In this process, the addition of sizing material accounts for a large proportion of total production costs (60%), making it difficult to compete with plastics and other decorative materials in terms of technical and economic factors, and it can easily pollute the environment. Hemp is first ammoniated by steam explosion, causing a large change in the natural structures. Epub 2018 Nov 15. Different strains have the corresponding optimum surface agents. The weakest pit membrane and the parenchyma of wood are damaged by the steam pressure difference between the internal and external wood through instantaneous controlled pressure drop; thereby wood permeability is improved (Li et al., 2011). Values are based on Bezerra and Ragauskas (2016) and Hurter (2001) for sugarcane bagasse cellulose, and Hallac and Ragauskas (2011), Hunter (2001), and Newman and Hemmingson (1990) for hardwood and softwood celluloses. In the 1980s, many companies tried to explore ways to use hemp fiber, especially degumming technology research from chemical degumming to biological degumming, and made some progress. doi: 10.1126/science.1137016. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. This work shows that a two-stage pretreatment greatly enhances the recovery of hemicellulosic sugars from spruce wood. Lan Wang, ... Hong-Zhang Chen, in Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 2018. Most of them are usually rich in carbohydrates, able to provide nutrients for bacteria growth and metabolism. The present invention relates to a process for producing soft and fine jute fibres from raw jute suitable for application in value added products especially in the textile industry. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Almost all the Basidiomycetes, which cause wood rot and habitat in the soil degradation layer, can produce this enzyme. Many studies (Birhanli & Yesilada, 2006; Lorenzo, Moldes, & Sanromán, 2006; Rosales, Couto, & Sanromán, 2007; Gassara, Brar, & Tyagi, 2010) have confirmed that adding a certain amount of Cu2+ in the medium can promote laccase production of white-rot fungus significantly. SteamID STEAM_0:0:11101 With the continuous development and in-depth study, fungal enzyme production by solid fermentation has attracted more and more scholars’ attention. However, recent studies indicate that fibrils are formed by a number of cellulose chains, ranging from 18 to 24 (Fernandes et al., 2011; Thomas et al., 2013), with a tendency to 24 chains due to the geometry observed in the cross-section of the fibrils (Cosgrove, 2014). p-Coumaric acid and guaiacol can improve laccase production of white-rot fungus Trametes sp. Bioresour Technol. If you find Steam ID Finder useful, then you could check out our main PC games site. In addition, some metal elements, such as copper, manganese, iron, zinc, and so on, are an integral part or enzyme reactive group, which cannot be ignored. EtOH yield expressed as % of theoretical yield. The right amount of manganese can improve LiP activity of P. chrysosporium. NIH In the thermal curing process, water molecules disrupt hydrogen bonds and destroy the original, sturdy and ordered structure of cellulose, leading to redistribution of cellulose. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Processing materials by steam explosion and then naturally retting and mixing with natural inorganic fertilizer also has disadvantages. -. Therefore, the current study focused on the improvement of existing solid-state fermentation systems or design of novel fermentation equipment, such as new RITA (Recipient Immersion Temporaire Automatique) batch immersion systems (Boehmer, Suhardi, & Bley, 2006). Compared to hardwood and softwood fibers, the most common and industrially relevant sources of cellulose, cellulosic fibers from sugarcane, are smaller than softwood fibers and similar in size to hardwood fibers (Table 9.1). Science. Abstract. In addition, the nutritional content of the lignocellulosic feedstock does not fully meet the needs of microbial growth and reproduction, so we have to add the appropriate carbon source (such as bran) and nitrogen (such as urea) in order to increase enzyme activity and protein content of the product. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Optimization of essential oil extraction from orange peels using steam explosion. The hydrolyzate containing the solubilized sugars is withdrawn from the reactor and the remaining solids are pretreated with different amounts of 2-naphthol in a second stage at a severity that allows for high glucose yields in enzymatic hydrolysis. 2016;2016:1–2. Therefore, steam explosion is an effective method for modifying solid matrix and has great potential in changing solid matrix to improve the fermentation environment. The maximum laccase activity reached 3.5 IU/mL, six times those in the other two fermenters. CTS, conventional thermal sterilization; CTSW, CTS medium with water addition; M2i, water proportion of component i; RM, raw medium; SES, steam explosion sterilization; T2i, relaxation time of component i [32]. Steam exploded matrix enlarged pores and cavities, leading to the appearance of T2b fraction, something not observed in conventional thermal treatment. [6, 7, 8]. Keywords: Also, many schools just don’t know where to start. Based on the similarities and differences between straw and wood in terms of chemical composition and structure, Prof. Chen has proposed a new concept of modified straw and has developed new technology using modified fibers to produce ecofriendly materials (Chen and Li, 2001). In order to prevent the degradation of the hemicellulose, we investigated in this study a two-stage 2-naphthol steam explosion pretreatment. Biotechnol Biofuels. Steam explosion is a well known pretreatment method working without additional chemicals and allowing for efficient particle size reduction. The forest cover in the world is decreasing and wood resources are experiencing serious shortages. Another effective method for the isolation of cellulose is the organosolv process, which is based on lignin and hemicellulose removal through the action of organic solvents, or a mixture of water and organic solvents (i.e., ethanol, methanol, acetone, ethylene glycol) catalyzed or not by acid. Cellulosic feedstocks, especially grasses, have been partially degraded after steam explosion treatment and the degradation products can replace expensive resveratrol as lignin gene expression inducer. The maximum product yield of Limonene, a major favorable component, were 77% and 100% in hydro-distillation and steam explosion processes, respectively.