Brinjal fruit and shoot borer Technical name: Leucinodes orbonalis G. Family: Crambidae Order: Lepidoptera Biology Distribution and host range This pest is practically monophagous, however, other plants belonging to family Solanaceae are reported to be hosts of this pest. 14:131-133. Sharma, H.C. (2005). (Lygaedae: Hemiptera) in Shahpur Sargodha, Pakistan. Biological control Trichogramma australicum and Trichogramma japonicum are important egg parasitoids of this pest (Grist and Lever 1969). Adults are nocturnal females generally live longer than males. The hindwings white to yellowish-brown pure white (Bayer 2013; Vreden and Ahmadzabidi 1986). In early sown cotton its appearance in April causes prominent yield loss (Ioan et al. 2.3.1. Tebufenozide (Mimic ®, Confirm ®) disrupt insect hormonal systems, and bind to the ecdysteroid receptors, thereby accelerating the molting process Lepidoptera insects, (Smagghe and especially, Degheele 1992; Spodoptera sp., Palli et al. Handbook of Vegetable Pests. Jha, L.K. Rev. They may be restricted to specific crop plants or favour some other plants as hosts. One hundred gram of guava contains about 14.32 g carbohydrates, 8.92 g sugar, 0.95 g fat, 2.55 g protein, 228.3 mg vitamin C and 49 µg vitamin B9 (Ng and Popkin 2012). Gogi, M. Sufyan, M.J. Arif and M. Plantegenest Common name Botanical Name Order Family Group 10: Corn, Okra, Martynia 1 Sweet corn Zea mays L. Poales Poaceae 2 Okra Hibiscus esciilentus L. Malvales Malvaceae 3 Martynia Mariynia proboscidiu L. Lamiales Martyniaceae Group 11: Condimental and Sweet heres Group 12: Mushroom. Constabel, C.P. Total loss may reach 50% (Panwar 1979). Weather effect on population dynamics of top borer (Scirpophaga nivella) and stem borer (Chilo infuscatellus S.) on sugarcane crop. VEGAN EGGPLANT LASAGNA FROM THE ROOFTOP FARM, -PHILLY GREEN WALL IN PRINT IN GARDEN DESIGN MAGAZINE, – SPRAY FOAM FLASH AND BATT – our methods for tighter insulation, – WINTERIZING PLEASANT PLAYGROUND GREEN ROOF, – FALL MAINTENANCE FOR FIRE STATION GREENWALLS, – ROOF TOP GROWN CABBAGE STUFFED WITH SALMON, – UPDATE ON THE HANSON-MARTIN GREENWALL BOSTON, – MODIFYING GREEN WALL PANELS – step by step fitting to site conditions, – GREEN ROOF UPDATE AT PLEASENT PLAYGROUND REC BUILDING, – CABBAGES FROM THE ROOFTOP STUFFED – a recipe, – THE POWER OF LIVE PLANTS ON THE WALL – the impact on residents, – ROOFTOP GREENHOUSE WINTER GROWING – extending the roof farm growing season, – GREEN ROOF COMPLETED AT PLEASANT PLAYGROUND, -LINDENGUILD HALL GREEN WALL NEARS COMPLETION, – CHILD PROOFING – not an Architectural Band Aid, – GREEN WALLS : Winter Maintenance Winter watering. 310 J.N. Gogi, M. Sufyan, A. Nawaz and R.M. Bongaarts, J. Economic decision levels (EDLs) are indispensible for devising and implementing insect pest management program in an effective and economical way (Pedigo and Rice 2009). Various control measures are being adopted to control insect pests (Dhaliwal and Koul 2010). 6.23 Life cycle of Aphid (Aphis gossypii G.) 193 194 A. Nawaz, M.D. and S.J. The presence of large numbers of eggs on fresh corn silks indicates the potential for damaging populations. These stimuli can either be of physical or chemical nature. Appl. 312 W.W. Hoback, M.I. Plant-based volatiles Semiochemicals which are produced by plants act as intrinsic defense against herbivores. Screening of insecticides against spotted bollworms, Earias species of cotton. Endocrinol. They also like munching on Carrot greens and I don’t. Gogi, M. Sufyan, M.J. Arif and M. Plantegenest (Berliner) also performed well in reducing damage and increasing yield (Chatterjee and Mondal 2012). It is now causing damage to many crops in different regions like Gulf, Oklahoma, Arizona, and California. Lingren and G.L. Agrawal, A.A. (1998). 1988) belonging to homopterans, hemipterans, orthopteran, dictyopterans, coleopterans; Lepidopterans; isopterans, hymenopterans, etc. Insect ecological studies also laid the foundation of insect chemical ecology that yielded the discovery of so many semiochemicals and their potential implementation in pest management program of so many insect pests (Pattison 2005). and Lewis, W.J. To prevent an Sand Chafer – White Grub. Four pillars and their associated components which lay down the basis of sustainable management of insect pests. J. Moreover, the chapter also provides valuable information and scientific knowledge about the methods and techniques used in the development of transgenic crops having insecticidal proteins and the importance of their use within an IPM context. Davis, A.J. pp. Syst. Irish J. Agric. Mugiira, R.B., S.S. Liu and X. Zhou (2008). CRC Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture, 1(2), Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. Red cotton bug Technical Name: Dysdercus koenigii Fabricius Family: Pyrrhocoridae Order: Hemiptera 78 K. Zia, A. Nawaz and M. Sajid Fig. Dunham, M.S. The area under sugarcane cultivation in Pakistan is 1.14 million ha and Pakistan earned around US$171.78 million from sugarcane export. Lopes, D.B. (1980). Management Guava black scale can be controlled by adopting following control measures. Sarfraz and O.E. Signs of infestation are rot and chlorotic spots. Tumlinson, J.H., D.D. However, they differ in size. 1997). Branson, T.J. and E.E Ortmn (1970). Damage Larva and adult weevils attack the roots and foliage of a number of vegetable crops. - will either yield no control or least control of the target insect pest species. Coelho, L. Zambolim, L.C. Guava fruit fly Technical name: Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) Family: Tephritidae Order: Diptera Biology Bactrocera zonata S. is a luminously colored little fly, approximately 5.4 mm in length. Faridabad. Springer, Dordrecht, NL, pp. Pawar (1982). Bot, A., and J. Benites (2001). Shah, M.A., N. Menon, A.M. Shaikh, B. Mal and S.A. Memon (2014). Economic survey of Pakistan. Mescher (2010). They have 5 longitudinal stripes on dorsal side. Nutritionally 100 g of mango gives about 250 KJ (60 Kcal) energy. A survey of herbivore-inducible defensive proteins and phytochemicals. 10 Integrated Pest Management, Past, Present and Future in a Changing World 317 Some studies suggest that when defoliated early in the season, plants can compensate for lost leaf area between 10 and 33% (Cranshaw and Radcliffe 1980). Progress in Biological Control, Integration of Insect Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs, Springer. It is a naturally occurring spore forming, gram-positive bacterium. 2008). A review of biological control in Pakistan. 127. (ed.). Ed. Leaves may show silvery appearance and become cup shaped in appearance. Biological control The spore forming Bacillus spp. Vegetables are grown in an agroecosystem which comprises both biotic and abiotic components and the interaction within and between them. 1.5.1. Clearly, the western corn rootworm has developed tremendous capacity to adapt to maize production practices, starting with the shift from native grasses to maize in monoculture, then the pest status as maize production increased across the United States, this was followed by adaptation and development of resistant populations to multiple insecticides followed by an invasiveness to the soybean-maize crop rotation practices. This information causes problems for producers who are interested in implementing IPM but who are adverse to risk. Examples include beetle, caterpillar and grasshopper. However, other areas of affected fields should also be scouted. 144 M.A. ), armyworm (Spodoptera spp.) The Baculoviruses, Plenum Press, New York. 2008) as Cecropin was recognized as the first AMP in the 1990s. Tomlin, S.D. and F.R. Ecol. Reporter genes are also cloned into the vector in close proximity to the gene of interest so that after transformation, the transformed cells may be easily identified. They are native to Britain, persistent in the soil for long-term control and are safe for users and the environment. Insect Physiol. Khan, UAF) Biology Adult female lays eggs under the skin of mango fruits. Soc. Benn (1983). Description of stages Egg: Elliptical and creamy white in appearance when laid then turn black before hatch. 269 Conclusions Biorational products denote biomolecules of natural origin that are active against pest populations, but relatively innocuous to nontarget organisms due to their low or no direct toxicity. 68 F. Mustafa, M.I. Seasonal abundance of the mirids, Lybux lucorum and Adelphocoris spp.